THE OBJECT OF COOK'S SECOND VOYAGE.
IN A REGION OF INTENSE COLD.
The most complete provisions having been made the expedition set sail from Deptford April 7th, 1772; but it was not until July 13th that the shores of England faded from the voyagers' view. On the 29th of October Cape of Good Hope was reached, where a stop was made until the 22d following, when anchors were weighed, and the voyage in quest of a new world was properly begun. Directly after leaving the Cape a dreadful storm broke over the vessel, which caused them to lie to for two days, during which time
A SEPARATION OF THE SHIPS.
By the middle of December the expedition had reached 50º S. latitude and Capt. Cook beheld a vast body of ice which in places rose to mountain height, and led the officers of both vessels to believe that they saw the rugged shores of a new continent, but upon a closer approach the delusion was dispelled by a realization that instead of a shore of safety, they were sailing among icebergs which
AN EVIDENCE OF CANNIBALISM.
While Cook was lying in Dusky Bay he utilized his time by making friends with the natives and killing ducks and geese, immense quantities of which swarmed in the inlets and coves thereabouts. The natives were friendly and he saw only one instance of cannibalism, or rather a sign that the New Zealanders had not fully abandoned that horrible practice. Among the many canoes that visited the ship, the crew of one had with them the head of a man who had been recently killed, which they carried in a bag and tried hard to keep concealed from view, knowing with what repugnance their white visitors regarded cannibalism. When Cook tried to secure the head the natives leaped back into their canoes and paddled with all possible speed for the shore, as if afraid he would punish them for their atrocious practices. It was here that Cook witnessed a grand spectacle, which he describes at great length and with much particularity. The sight was that of no less
THE BILLY GOAT ATTACKS A NATIVE BOY.
The Adventure and Resolution having re-united after a long separation, the event was happily celebrated, after which the two sailed for Queen Charlotte's Sound, New Zealand, where they both came to anchor and were visited by several canoes filled with natives. Among these visitors was an old chief, accompanied by his son, some fifteen years of age, who besought Capt.Cook to give the lad
Having given directions to Capt. Furneaux, of the Adventure, where to rendezvous, in case of another separation of the ships, Capt. Cook left New Zealand on the 7th of June and sailed south-westwardly, to renew his quest for a southern continent. After a month of fruitless search and attaining 70º deg. S. latitude, he turned northward and on August 15th arrived again at Otaheite.
Upon reaching the place where he had remained some months in 1869, Cook was joyously welcomed and a reception was tendered him by the King at which some dances were performed and what appeared to be a drama enacted for his amusement, in which a procession of feather-bedecked flute players took a prominent part. Several of the Otaheitans enquired about Tupia, but expressed little feeling when told he had died a natural death at Batavia. After a short stay at Otaheite Cook departed on a visit for other islands of the Society Group, taking with him a native named Poreo, who was eager to accompany him as an interpreter, and whose services were found to be most valuable. Capt. Furneaux also took with him a young native, named Omai, who remained with him until his return to England and was there given the opportunity to acquire the arts of civilization, but at the expiration of two years he was glad to return to Otalieite with Cook on his third voyage, as will be hereafter described.
On September 14th Cook and the other officers of both ships dined with the Chief, by whom they were feasted in the most agreeable manner. In the absence of tables the ground was thickly covered with green leaves, around which the diners assembled, and immediately after two steaming roast pigs were thrown into the centre of the party, all of whom being prepared with knives fell to without ceremony to cutting portions from the pigs, which were of about sixty pounds weight each. Besides this meat, the leaf-covered floor was garnished with hot bread-fruit and plantains, and the milk of cocoa-nuts provided a delicious drink. After dining heartily the ships' officers retired, whereupon a wild scramble was begun by the natives, who had been onlookers at the feast, for such bits as had fallen among the leaves. This fact led Capt. Cook to believe that though pigs were fairly plentiful on the island the common people were by no means accustomed to eating them. Indeed they gladly assisted in the butchering of pigs, and thought their labors well rewarded by a gift of the entrails.
SACRIFICE OF HUMAN BEINGS.
Though Cook had, by his two visits and considerable stay among the Otaheitans, made himself acquainted with most of their customs, it was not until now that he obtained proof of his suspicions that, on certain occasions, human sacrifices were made a part of their religious ceremonies:
Proceeding to the island of Matavia, one of the group, in company with some of his crew, he came upon a morai, or cemetery, in which he observed a corpse lying upon a low scaffold with a quantity of provisions about the body. Drawing the natives into conversation, he inquired if they did not sacrifice hogs, dogs and fowls to their god, Eotua, to which he received an affirmative reply; and gaining their confidence by assuming an indifferent air, Cook asked if humans were not also occasionally sacrificed, to which a chief responded that it was true they made offerings of humans at the death of important personages, but that those who were thus sacrificed were invariably men who had been condemned for crime, and who were unable to redeem themselves. Such persons forfeited their lives and were killed and made offerings to the god Eotua, who is the Otaheitan's supreme being. Of this custom Cook quotes from Mr. Williams, in his "Missionary Visits in the South-Sea Islands," the following: "The system of human sacrifices did not prevail at the Navigator Islands, but at the Hervey Group, and still more at the Tahitian and Society Islands, where it was carried to an extent truly appalling. There was one ceremony called Rauma-tavehi-raa, 'the feast of restoration,' at which no
"When the priest declared a sacrifice necessary, messengers were dispatched by the King to the various chiefs to collect the requisite number of victims. These emissaries would inquire, on entering the house, if the chief had a broken calabash, or a rotten cocoa-nut at hand (terms very well understood), on which the devoted objects, often long before fixed upon, were pointed out, and instantly knocked down with a small round stone concealed in the hollow of the hand by the messengers, when others rushed in and crushed the skull to pieces by beating it in with stones, after which the body was carried to the morai. If the victim took refuge in a house, he was speared to death from the outside.
"As soon as one of the family had been selected all of the male members were looked upon as devoted to the same horrid purpose. It would avail them nothing if they removed to another island, for the reason of their removal would soon be known there, and whenever a sacrifice was required, it would be sought amongst them."