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LEAVING Otaheite after a delightful visit, the voyage continued pleasant and after a few days' sail another island was discovered, followed during the next week by the finding of several others, at a few of which land ings were made and intercourse with the natives established; but the customs and general appearance of the islanders were not materially different from those found at Otaheite. At one island, named Bolabola, "which is one of a group of six contiguous islands belonging to the Societies," Cook was agreeably entertained by a company of natives consisting of two women dancers and six men, three of the latter being drummers, and all of them belonging to the better class, who refused to receive gratuities for their performances. Describing the entertainment the Commander says: "The women had upon their heads a considerable quantity of tamou, or plaited hair, which was brought several times around the head and adorned in many parts with the flowers of the cape jessamine, which were stuck in with much taste and made a head-dress truly elegant. Their necks, shoulders and arms were naked, so were the breasts also as low as the parting of the arm; below that they were covered with a black cloth which set close to the body. At the side of each breast, next to the arm was placed a small plume of black feathers, much in the same manner as our ladies now wear their nosegays or bouquets. Upon their hips rested a quantity of cloth plaited very full which reached up to the breast and fell down behind into long petticoats, which quite concealed their feet and which they managed with as much dexterity as our opera dancers could have done. The plaits above the waist were brown and white alternately; the petticoats below were all white. In this dress they advanced sideways in a measured step, keeping excellent time to the drums which beat briskly and loud. Soon after they began to shake their hips, giving the folds of cloth that lay upon them a very quick motion, which was in some degree continued through the whole dance, though the body was thrown into various positions, sometimes standing, sometimes sitting and sometimes resting on their knees and elbows, the fingers also being moved at the same time with a quickness scarcely to be imagined. Much of the dexterity of the dancers, however, and the entertainment of the spectators, consisted in the wantonness of their attitudes and gestures which were, indeed, such as exceed all description."


From Bolabola the Endeavor sailed south-westwardly until October 7th the shore of New Zealand was sighted, when on the following day anchor was cast in Poverty Bay, or Turunga, and Cook despatched a small boat to the shore at a point where a river empties into the sea. A landing was made without opposition from the natives who had watched with amazement the approach of the ship and the launching of the pinnace; but, when leaving the small boat the crew advanced a few hundred yards toward the interior, they were suddenly confronted by four warriors armed with long lances who were resolved on attacking their white
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visitors; the latter, however, being apprised of the intentions of the hostile islanders, beat a hasty retreat to their boat and pushing off hastened down the stream to seek a place of security; but the natives jumped into one of their canoes and set out in pursuit, nor did two shots fired over their heads cause them to pause more than a few moments. The pursuit now growing dangerous one of the boat's crew shot the leader of the hostile party dead, at which the others beat a quick retreat, for a while trying to drag the body away with them. The man who was thus killed proved to be a distinguished chief named Ta-Ratu, who at the head of a large party of warriors had only a short while before come over from a neighboring island and waged successful war on the native New Zealanders, whom they had dispossessed of a considerable district. From the people with whom Cook afterwards conversed it was learned that they at first believed his ship a monstrous bird, the wings of which had struck them with greater amazement than, its size; but on seeing a smaller bird (the ship's pinnace) without sails descending into the water and a number of parti-colored beings, but apparently of human shape, also descending, the bird was regarded as a house full of divinities. When their leader was killed, "the manner of his unseen death was ascribed to a thunder bolt from these new gods, and the noise made by the discharge of the muskets was represented as the watitiri, or thunder, which accompanies that sublime phenomenon. To revenge themselves was the dearest wish of the tribe, but how to accomplish it with divinities who could kill them at a distance without even approaching to them, was difficult to determine. Many of these natives observed that they felt themselves taken ill by only being particularly looked at by these Atuas. It was therefore agreed that as these new-comers could bewitch with a single look, the sooner their society was dispensed with the better for the general welfare."


After the first tragic incident connected with the landing of Cook's men on New Zealand, it was only after many signs of amity and persistent inducement that any of the natives could be persuaded to visit the ship; but at length a canoe laden with twenty islanders ventured to visit the vessel, and, meeting with no disasters, others were emboldened and soon the ship was overrun by hundreds who, unwilling to barter with the crew, began to indiscriminately seize every portable thing. Protests being of no avail, it became necessary to resort to harsher means, and Cook reluctantly ordered his men to fire on the impudent thieves, one of whom was killed and a number wounded. The others became so frightened that they jumped into the sea and swam to shore, nor did Cook give them an opportunity to renew their molestations, for he sailed away at once.

Cook coasted New Zealand, stopping from time to time and using every means to establish friendly intercourse with the natives, but though he induced several to visit his ship, yet with all the gifts he bestowed upon them and kindnesses exhibited they did not abate their savagery. On one occasion while several of the New Zealanders were on board begging for everything they saw, a party of them seized the ten-year-old son of Tupia, and before they could be arrested had escaped to their boat with the boy, intending to eat him when they got to the shore. Threats failing to make the natives return, a volley was discharged directly at the kidnappers, three of whom were killed. The boy being released in the excitement which followed he jumped overboard and swam back to the ship in safety.


Some days afterwards, on another part of the coast, the natives appeared so friendly that Cook and several of his party were induced to go on shore, where they were hospitably received and a considerable trade, in the way of exchanging cloths, beads, nails, etc., for such provisions as fish, yams, torros, celery and for native arms, was carried on with mutual satisfaction. The day was thus profitably and agreeably spent, at the close of which the white visitors accepted an invitation to enter one of the largest huts, and what was there observed Cook thus describes: "A little before sunset the Indians retired to eat their supper and we went with them to be spectators. It consisted of fish of different kinds, among which were lobsters, and birds of a species unknown to
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us; these were either roasted or baked. To roast them they fastened them upon a small stick which was stuck up in the ground inclining towards their fire, and to bake them they put them into a hole in the ground in the same manner as the people of Otaheite. Among the natives that were assembled upon this occasion, we saw a woman who after their manner was mourning for the death of her relation. She sat upon the ground near the rest who, one only excepted, seemed not at all to regard her; the tears constantly trickled down her cheeks and she repeated, in a low, but very mournful voice, words which even Tupia did not understand. At the end of every sentence she cut her arms, her face or her breast with a shell that she held in her hands, so that she was almost covered with blood, and was indeed one of the most affecting spectacles that can be conceived. The cuts, however, did not appear to be as deep as they are sometimes made upon similar occasions, if we may judge by the scars upon the arms, thighs, breasts, and cheeks of many which we were told were the remains of wounds which they had inflicted upon themselves as testimonials of their affection and sorrow."

A subsequent visit on shore did not prove so safe or pleasant, for while Cook, Banks and Solander, with a well-armed body-guard, were making some investigations on the banks of a little cove at which was moored their yawl, the party found themselves suddenly beset by fully three hundred islanders, who brandished their lances and clubs in a most threatening manner. Their numbers were presently augmented by a hundred more, and now being emboldened to make an attack they advanced, though cautiously, all the while singing their war songs. When the army of savages had passed a line which Cook had made to indicate the proximity he would allow, the body-guard was commanded to fire their guns, which were only loaded with small shot, at the hostile natives and a few were rather severely, though not seriously wounded; at this they drew back, but seeing that no great harm had been done, the islanders quickly rallied under the encouragement of their chief, and came charging back with savage demonstrations until one of the seamen discharged his gun at him with such effect that the warrior ran off howling desperately, followed fast by his panic-stricken army, who had no disposition now to renew the attack.


At another landing where Cook, Banks, Solander, and Tupia the interpreter, went on shore, they found a family making preparations for a feast, Some coals of fire were noticed in a hole in the ground on which the dressed body of a dog was roasting and almost ready for eating; but what was more curious (for, indeed, dog flesh is commonly eaten by all the Pacific islanders), was the sight of two baskets, made of rushes, in which were discovered human bones that had been freshly picked. Inquiry being made, the islanders freely admitted the practice of eating all the bodies of their enemies killed in war. They also explained that in a conflict which had occurred near the place of their present feasting seven of their enemies had been killed, who had since been eaten, and of which the bones now before them were a part of the remains. The following day four heads of the seven thus slain were presented to Mr. Banks by the natives, and afterwards many human bones were brought out to the ship and offered in exchange by the islanders for such articles as delighted their fancy.

Having completed the coasting of a large part of New Zealand, and explored the strait which separates the two islands, and to which he gave his own name, on March 31st, Cook took his departure and continued his voyage westwardly. New Zealand was first discovered by Tasman, in December, 1642, but it had not been visited by any other white person to the time of Cook's coming, as just described. Tasman, too, went little on shore, though he coasted the island on the east for a distance of five hundred and fifty miles and entered the strait; but he obtained so little knowledge of the country that he believed it a great southern continent.

Proceeding over the same course pursued by Tasman, more than one hundred years before, Cook sighted the Australian banks on April the 19th, but instead of landing at once coasted the shore for a distance of one hundred miles and at length, finding a suitable harbor, put into Botany Bay, where the great commercial port of Sydney is now situated. The ship came to anchor before a small
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village and a yawl was launched in which Cook, Banks and Solander started for the shore; several natives were observed on the beach, but they quickly vanished, save two, who savagely opposed any landing being made at the village, nor did offerings of nails, beads, or ribbons serve to placate their hostility. Upon a closer approach to the shore the two threw spears at Cook's party, but happily without effect, but at length necessity required that they be put to rout by a discharge of small shot. Tupia, who had held easy intercourse with the New Zealanders, the similarity of their languages being surprisingly great, was unable to understand a word uttered by the Australians, hence communication could be only made by signs.


A few days after landing many natives were seen, but they could not be induced to approach near enough for Cook to give them assurance of his peaceful intentions. He observed, however, that they were armed with formidable lances some ten feet in length and cruelly barbed with fish bones. Besides these weapons, they carried, a much more dangerous one known as a boomerang, which the natives used chiefly in hunting, but it was equally effective when turned against their enemies. This weapon is a short covered piece of heavy wood, and, singular to relate, is thrown in the opposite direction from the object aimed at. It does not descend at once to the ground, but after proceeding a short distance forward it rises in rapid whirls and then darts backwards over the head of the thrower, and strikes at great distances behind him; but so remarkable is the Australian's skill that the weapon goes as surely to the mark as does the bullet of an expert rifleman. But while better armed, the Australians had boats very inferior to those used by the New Zealanders, which proved them to be less aquatic in their habits; indeed, the New Zealanders were as essentially fishermen as the Australians were hunters

Unable to come in contact with the natives, on account of their distrust and shyness, Cook did not remain long in Botany Bay, but weighing anchor he set to coasting the country on the east side. At several inviting harbors he put in, however, and was able to obtain the greatest abundance of provisions by the exertions of his company. At one place they found quail in extraordinary numbers, and so tame that it was easy to kill them with stones. Fish also abounded in great numbers, so that a single haul of the net would frequently result in the catch of three hundred pounds' weight. Bustards, a species of gallinaceous birds about the size of a turkey, and peculiar to Australia, were shot, and afforded members of the expedition the most palatable food that they had eaten since leaving England. In all the shallows, and especially the inlets, oysters and crabs were extremely plentiful, many of the former being pearl bearing, and at one landing the crew found great numbers of sting rays, some of which they killed that weighed above four hundred pounds.


On the 14th of June, while standing off shore a distance of twenty-five miles, the Endeavor suddenly struck a rock with such great force that she was carried over and left resting in a basin between the rock which she had cleared and another that, lifting its head higher, held her fast. Examination revealed the alarming fact that the vessel was making water rapidly, and being unable at once to release her, it seemed that certain destruction awaited every one on board. Twenty hours of incessant labor at the pumps, and working at the steam anchor, failed to release the ship, which continued to beat upon the rock until it appeared that the floating of her off from her present support must be followed by her sinking. But when the crew had fairly exhausted themselves she was finally
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released, and a novel expedient was adopted to prevent her sinking, which she must have done after a delay of two or three hours. A sail was quickly brought into service, to which was lightly sewed a cushion of oakum smeared with offal, and with this preparation it was swung under the ship until it passed over the rent in her bottom. The inrush of water held it in place, and this pressure made the padded sail an excellent substitute for a bulkhead. The leak was now so materially checked that it could be kept under control by the pumps, and the ship, after beating about for three days, finally found a suitable harbor at the mouth of Endeavor river, where she put in for repairs.

In this vicinity Captain Cook remained for a considerable time, finding thereabout abundant supplies in the form of wild cabbages, fish, turtles and game. It was in this place that Mr. Banks discovered the kangaroo and Australian dog, or dingo, which were previously unknown to the naturalists of the civilized world. A few of the former were killed and considered a great delicacy.

It was not until after weeks of patient effort that our voyagers were able to have any communications with the Australians, who could not be induced to approach nearer than one hundred yards, until by accident Cook threw a fish toward a party of eight natives. This act seemed to secure their confidence in the peaceful intentions of their white visitors, and soon after another party was induced to come on board the ship. All the natives of both sexes were entirely nude, and the only body decoration noticed was a few streaks of paint on the breast and a piece of bone run through the septum of the nose. They placed no value on the many gaudy presents which were given them, but so greatly desired some of the turtles which Cook's men had caught that, their requests being refused, they attempted to take two of the turtles by force. The effort being in vain they exhibited great anger, and on gaining the shore set fire to the grass, which speedily threatened destruction to the tents' and stores not yet moved back to the ship. So intent were the natives on doing serious injury to the expedition, that at last it became necessary to fire a charge of small shot among them which wounded one and brought the others to a full appreciation of the white men's power. A reconciliation was effected afterwards however, and Cook and his men were entertained on the following day by a party of lance throwers, who were so skilful that they could discharge their weapons with extraordinary accuracy a distance of fifty yards, though the lance never flew more than a distance of four feet above the ground.


On August 23d, 1870, Cook left Booby Island, off the coast of Australia, and sailing in a north-west direction, on September 3d a landing was made on the southern coast of New Guinea. Upon going on shore Cook and his companions were attacked by three of
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the natives, who on being dispersed by a musket volley, soon returned with about sixty others who threw darts, and from little canes which they carried issued a smoke exactly like the discharge of a gun, but giving forth no noise. Concerning this singular attack and more wonderful weapons used, Cook says: "All this time they were shouting defiance and letting off their fires by four or five at a time. What these fires were, or for what purpose intended, we could not imagine; those who discharged them had in their hands a short piece of stick, possibly a hollow cane, which they swung sideways from them and we immediately saw fire and smoke exactly resembling that produced by a musket discharge and of no longer duration. This wonderful phenomenon was observed from the ship and the deception was so great that the people on board thought they had firearms, and in the boat, if we had not been so near as that we must have heard the report, we should have thought they had been firing volleys." This inhospitable reception which proved to Cook the great danger attendant upon an attempt to continue on, or penetrate the island, induced him to directly abandon the coast and proceed westward to Batavia. On the way the vessel came upon the Island of Java, a Dutch possession, where after many difficulties a landing was made and a supply of fresh meat, consisting of buffalo, sheep and hogs, was obtained.


Continuing the voyage Cook put into Batavia on October 3d, to repair his ship which was in a sorry condition, and making water rapidly. A great delay was encountered in getting the necessary permission from the Dutch Governor-General, so that it was the beginning of November before the ships were beached. In the meantime, the ships' officers and crews took up their quarters on shore, where, owing to bad sewerage and malaria, nearly all of them fell violently ill. Mr. Monkhouse, the surgeon, died, and little Taytete, son of Tupia, the Otaheite chief, quickly followed. Banks and Solander were at death's door, and as a last effort to save their lives, they were moved into the country under the care of some slave women. By good nursing they recovered, but Tupia, who had been long unwell, fell a victim to the same illness that had carried away his son and others of the expedition.

The necessarily protracted stay in Batavia afforded Banks and Solander, after their recovery, opportunity to acquaint themselves with the customs, superstitions and character of the native Javanese, of which Cook gives very full report. Among the many singular
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beliefs peculiar to these people is that the women not infrequently give birth to a child and a crocodile simultaneously, so that a large portion of the natives believe that they have a brother or sister crocodile. From this unaccountable superstition arises the custom of making offerings to these repulsive reptiles, which from occasional practice finally grew into a sacred observance. Another equally remarkable vagary, and one very much more serious, is called running-a-muck, which may be described as a Javanese making himself intoxicated on opium and while in this condition seizing a dangerous weapon and running through the streets striking right and left at every one who chances to be in his way. Hundreds of people are killed every year by these wretches, who in turn are either slain outright, or, if taken by the officers with long spears, made for the purpose, they are broken upon the wheel. And if an amuck is wounded and a physician gives an opinion that his injuries are likely to prove fatal, he is immediately put to the torture. To crown the absurdities characteristic of these people, the largest tax paid by them is literally a poll-tax; because it is exacted of the people for wearing their hair long. Those who are unable to bear this burden must shave the head.

On the 27th Captain Cook set sail from Batavia for England, but while the crew had greatly improved during their stay in the country, their departure was quickly followed by a return of the maladies which first afflicted them on landing on the shore of Java. Day after day those stricken grew rapidly worse, until before reaching Good Hope no less than nine seamen and thirteen officers and scientists of the expedition were buried at sea, besides several who had died before and were buried at Batavia.

On June 12th, 1771, Captain Cook and his men had the unspeakable joy of seeing the shores of their beloved England, after an absence of nearly three years.

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